Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University,Pusa Samastipur
Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University,Pusa is located 20 kilometers west from Samastipur district headquarters and it is identified as the birthplace of agricultural research work in the country. In 1905 AD, the foundation stone of the Agricultural Research Institute was laid on from 30,000 thousand dollars provided by Henry Philip, an American citizen in Pusa, by the then Vice-Governor and Governor General Lord Curzon. In 1911, the institute was renamed as Imperial Institute of Agricultural Research. In the year 1916, this institute developed two variants of wheat namely Pusa-4 and Pusa-12, which was awarded the first prize in the World Food grain Exhibition. It is worth noting that through extensive research work this institute developed various advanced discernment of paddy, wheat, tobacco, pulses, vegetables, oilseed and chilli for the farmers of the state and the country. Contribution of HM Lafray, T.V. flayer and H. S. Pruthi, the then scientist working in the institute has been a pioneer for the identification and prevention of insects on major crops. Similarly, for the research work on plant diseases, this institution has been praised at world level. The then scientist E.J. Butler, W.M. Makar, M. Mitra and V.V. Mundukar contribution in this direction is remarkable. For the research on fertilizer use and water management in crops, the then scientist Dr. J. W. Leather name is taken exclusively. It is notable that the first published bulletin, Pusa bulletin and Agricultural Journal of India (1912) was started by this institute to spread the developed techniques of the institute. In the year 1918, the institute was renamed as Imperial Agricultural Research Institute. Unfortunately, in January 1934, due to the terrible earthquake this institution had to suffer a lot of losses. As a result, the transfer of this institute was done in New Delhi in the year 1935. Again, in 1936, the Central Sugarcane station located in Muzaffarpur (Mushri Farm) was transferred in Pusa. Since its inception, the Research Institute of Pusa has had an unprecedented contribution towards developing advanced technology for sugarcane production in the state. Today, the name of Pusa has come not only in the field of agricultural research but also on the world map. Seeing the various agricultural institutions and their utility here, Rajendra Agricultural University was set up on 3 December 1977 for the development of the nation. While on the one hand, various faculties of the University are continuously getting innovative new achievements in the field of scientific education, research and dissemination under agricultural engineering, base science and home science, on the other hand, in 2011, establishment of Borolog Institute in the name of well-known agriculture Scientist N.E. Borlog is a matter of pride for the district and the state. In addition, a regional unit center of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, is doing research on paddy and wheat crops in Pusa.
Nishad’s pilgrimage Place – Baba Amarasingh Asthan
Baba Amar Singh Asthan is the national pilgrim center of Nishad which is located about 05 km south-east of Patori Bazar, Samastipur.This place is situated in Shiura village and its importance is increasing continuously since the 16th century. On the occasion of Ramnavmi and Srawani Purnima , thousands of devotees of Nishad throughout the nation visit here and take blessings of Baba.Pilgrims used to do Baba’s meditation here With Gaja- Baja and Dhol-Mandar and by offering soil made-up elephants & horses and by pouring milk. According to the fables and old villagers, centuries ago, there was a devastating flood of Ganga in this area, suddenly a Jata-jutdhari sadhu appeared and flood water fell down due to their worship. Later on Baba Amarsingh became disappeared. According to fables, Baba had come here from the ship of gold, which is still buried in the soil. Whose chain can be seen in adjacent well. This temple is located on top of the same ship. There is no statue in the temple and devotees pour milk in a hole made in the temple. Devotees pour thousands of liters of milk in Ramnavami and Srawni Purnima but nobody knows where this milk goes. Hundreds of years old bark tree are all around in the temple complex which is supposed to be developed from datum used by Baba. Apart from Nishads there is a similar reverence for Baba in other peoples also. Many people renovated the temple upon completion of their vow and also made many pilgrims residence. People from Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Orissa, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka etc. visits and stays here during Ramanavami and holy Srawan month. It is said that the leprosy patients are healed after serving Baba. The Patori-Shiura main road has been constructed by the government to reach the temple premises but still there is not enough facilities for devotees coming in Ramnavami and Srawni Purnima yet devotees who come here forget their sufferings and devote their devotion to Baba. According to the devotees, Baba is still alive but in evanescence.
Dome’s pilgrimage place – Devdha
Each person has a different way of living his life in which culture has significant impact. On each person’s cultural activities there is the effect of many saint man, Goddess/God and places. People living in Samastipur district also have some recognized Goddesses/God or saint man, and people consider his life successful by giving their reverence towards them. Like other ethnic God, Shyam Singh is recognized as the ethnic God of Domes in Hasanpur area of the district. According to the popular saga, Shyam Singh was born in Singhiya his rivalry was from the Banshidhar Vaman of Devdha, but Balaji, son of Shyam Singh, defeated the Banshidhar Vaman and killed him, then the son of Banshidhar Vaman killed Shyam Singh and Balaji both. In this way Shyam Singh and Banshidhar Vaman are worshiped in Devdha. Today Devdha domes have a pilgrimage place where dome comes from all over the country and offers their reverence. People worship Shyam Singh by offering piglets. In addition to Shyam Singh and Balaji, there are people who worship Mahakar in the domes, these are also considered as racial God. Even after demand when Mahakar was not offered sugarcane juice, he jumped into the boiling juice groin and sacrificed his life. This is the reason that apart from domes, farmers who cultivate sugarcane and produce jaggery also worship Mahakar. Those who are different from these works do not worship them.
Khudneshwar Asthan is a Hindu temple devoted to Lord Shiva located 17 kilometers southwest of the Samastipur district headquarters. The name of the temple was inherited from a Muslim woman named Khudni who found the Lingam at this location and became a devotee of Lord Shiva. Her mortal remains were buried one yard south beside the Lingam under the same temple roof.
During the British Empire, Narhan estate built this temple in 1858 and appointed a priest as a caretaker. Devotees flock there yearround, but especially during its annual festival of Maha Shivratri and in the month of Shravan, crowds emerge for darshana and worship. In 2008 Bihar Religious Trust Board Chairman Kishore Kunal provided financial assistance from the board and announced it to be developed for tourists to demonstrate Hindu-Muslim unity.
In the 14th century the temple site was covered by dense forest and was used mainly for grazing cattle. Khudni often went there for grazing her cow. One day while returning home after grazing, she tried milking her cow but received no milk. This continued for several days. One day while grazing, the cow left her sight. She found the cow and was astonished to see her cow shedding milk. She ran to the village to relate her discovery. The local people cleared the ground and started digging, only to find a Lingam. After her death her remains were buried beside the Lingam. They erected a temple that they named “Khudneshwar Asthan” inherited from the name of the Muslim woman Khudni Biwi.
Mohiuddinnagar tells the story of Mughal history. The story of Babur, Ruhale and Afghani is buried in the ruins of historic buildings present here. When Babar took over Delhi in year 1526 , Ruhale and Afghani spread to Bengal and Tirhut. When they ran towards Bihar, the Nawab of Bengal, Alivardi Khan, gave him shelter. Ruhale’s chief Shamsher Khan became the main soldier of Alivardi Khan, but was murdered by enemies. Consequently, Alivardi Khan completed her accountability and married her daughter Ayesha to Shah Mohammed Asaak and gave him the fiefdom of 20 villages in the farewell. The fort of Ayesha Biwi was built in the same land which today is turning into ruins and telling history. The tomb of Shah Mohammed Munovwaruddin lies in the north of the fort of Ayesha Biwi. Ayesha’s husband named him ‘Mohiuddinnagar’ in his name. Apart from this, Hazrat Sarwar Shah’s Khankah and the Iranian style mosque built in year 1497 is related with Lodhi lineage. A house for hanging purpose is situated inside the fort of Ayesha Biwi whose ruins can be seen there. It is said that the criminals were punished in this same house. Fort area located in the north from Mohiuddinagar Bazar was formerly known as ‘Government’ The successors of the daughter of Ruhla Afghan Sardar Shamsher Khan were also known as government formerly. Here,about 10 feet high lakhori brick long wall is spread over a large portion. These forts are now seen as ruins. The door of fort is also dilapidated.Through this door elephant and horses used to go inside the fort initially but later, people living there build a small gate to protect the inner part of the fort. After the death of Ayesha Biwi, her grandson Sah Mohammed Hussain made the tomb upon her grave, but only a few months later, roof of the tomb fell down during rainy season. When Sah Mohammed Hussain wanted to repair the roof again, he saw during dream that someone is prohibiting him to make the roof. As a result, the roof was lying on the ground. The era of Sah Mohammad Wajid Hussain came again. He repaired the tomb roof, but on the second day the roof fell down again. Since then no one has ever tried to rebuild the tomb roof. Such historical heritage has now been transformed into ruins
Chandrabhawan is situated in Patori, where the history of freedom is hidden. As you enter the building, you can easily remember Sardar Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad, Batkeshwar Dutt and his companion T. Paramanand, revolutionaries like Pandit Satya Narayan Prasad Tiwari, Baleshwar Singh and Baldev Chaudhary. Now the memoirs related to them in Chandrabhawan have taken the form of legend. People of the region also share their stories with their next generation and feel them blessed. Chandrabhawan is the historical site of this region where during the freedom movement, the long years of independence like Bhagat Singh and Chandrasekhar Azad kept hidden in view of the freedom movement in the whole country. The tunnel in its walls still says the story of their hiding even today. T. Parmanand of Chandra Bhawan was associated with the revolutionary movement whereas Pandit Satyanarayan Tiwari was a supporter of the non-cooperation movement. Context and memoirs show that the English government had kept the warrant issued on Chandrasekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Batukeshwar Dutt and T. Parmanand. Police got information that these four were hidden in the chandrabhawan building. On this information, the English police surrounded the entire Chandrabhavan, when the family’s Ram Khelavan Tiwari got the information about this and he said in strict words to the British that women should be allowed to leave the house before taking a search. In this sequence, Bhagat Singh, Chandrasekhar Azad etc. wear a sari and ran out of there. For the collection of weapons, Azad and Satyanarayan Tiwari under the leadership of T. Parmanand robbed in the house of T. Paramananda’s uncle. Bhagat Singh did not like rice at all,for them T. Parmanand’s mother used to make roti all three times, and at that time her mother had just the information that Sardarjee is the friend of his son. When Bhagat Singh and T. Parmanand were locked in Lahore, Paramand’s mother went to Lahore to meet him. After the hanging when the picture of Bhagat Singh was printed in the newspapers, then the mother of Paramanand got information that he was Sardar Bhagat Singh. During the Patori stay, these brave man used A.N.D. College field for practicing firearm. Baldev Chaudhari of Jappura who was sentenced to death and Baleshwar Singh of Malpur who was Kalapani convicted, also lived with them here. Although the time has passed, but the memories related to the Chandrabhavan are still alive here.